Baby born in Nigeria, suffering from Cyclopia (also cyclocephaly or synophthalmia) – a rare birth defect characterized by failure of embryonic forebrain to divide into two orbital cavities for the eyeballs resulting in one eye. Typically the face lacks a functional nose.
Cartoon anatomy of the bile ducts and pancreas
1. Bile ducts
2. Intrahepatic bile ducts
3. Left and right hepatic ducts
4. Common hepatic duct
5. Cystic duct
6. Common bile duct
7. Ampulla of Vater
8. Major duodenal papilla
10-11. Right and left lobes of liver
18. Accessory pancreatic duct
19. Pancreatic duct
20-21: Right and left kidneys
cross section of a human heart
Study reveals potential treatments for Ebola and other deadly viruses
Illnesses caused by many of the world’s most deadly viruses cannot be effectively treated with existing drugs or vaccines. A study published by Cell Press in the March 21 issue of the journal Chemistry & Biology has revealed several compounds that can inhibit multiple viruses, such as highly lethal Ebola virus, as well as pathogens responsible for rabies, mumps, and measles, opening up new therapeutic avenues for combating highly pathogenic viruses.
“The medical field currently does not have ideal antiviral therapies, often no therapeutics at all, and the development of broad-spectrum antivirals is a great way to provide treatment in the future,” says study author Claire Marie Filone of Boston University School of Medicine. “Toward that end, we have identified a drug that targets multiple viruses- and may be developed into an antiviral treatment for known and emerging viruses.”
Many viruses that cause human diseases are nonsegmented, negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, which include the highly lethal Ebola virus and other pathogens mentioned above. In contrast to the many antibiotics that work against a wide range of bacteria, there are currently no highly effective or safe broad-spectrum drug treatments for viral diseases.
To address this need, John Connor and John Snyder of Boston University and their team screened thousands of diverse compounds for small molecules that showed strong antiviral activity against multiple NNS viruses. They identified several molecules that inhibited infection in cells exposed to either Ebola or another NNS virus called vesicular stomatitis virus. These molecules, which are related to a class of plant-derived compounds called indoline alkaloids, share a common chemical structure that can be modified to enhance antiviral activity.
The most potent of these compounds turned off NNS viral genes by blocking transcription. “Because our antiviral targets such a critical step in virus replication, we may be able to develop it into a therapeutic that could be used against many different types of viral infections,” Filone says.
QUIZ: Child with a cough. Initial chest xray is on the left with the right image taken 3 months later. What was the original diagnosis? What would your management have been? Click to play VIDEO ANSWER
Note: this specific case is discussed at the 2:00 min mark but the lead up discussion is really important to understanding the diagnosis
Sir, I think you have a splinter, the nurse will be in with tweezers.
“The picture postcards of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) ushered in a new age of celebrity on the Japanese side, in which heroes were accompanied by heroines. The latter almost always tended to be Red Cross nurses, who played many symbolic roles. The Red Cross affiliation highlighted Japan’s new internationalism. Depictions of Japanese nurses providing aid and solace to wounded Russian prisoners were intended to demonstrate modern Japan’s humanitarianism. And, predictably, the nurses were invariably good-looking.” (source)